THE LAST SERMON OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (peace
be upon him)
This sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul-Hijjah, 10 A.H.
(632 CE) in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat in Makkah. It was
the occasion of the annual rites of Hajj (the pilgrimage). It is
also known as the Farewell Pilgrimage.
After praising, and thanking Allah (The One True God) the Prophet
began with the words:
"O People! lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether
after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore, listen
carefully to what I am saying and Take These Words to Those Who
Could Not Be Present Here Today.
“O People! just as you regard this month, this day, this
city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim
as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful
owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you
will indeed meet your LORD, and that he will indeed reckon your
“Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore
all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital
is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity.
Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the
interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib (Prophet's uncle) be
“Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days
is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that
arising from the murder of Rabiah ibn al-Harithiah.
“O Men! the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calender
in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to prohibit
which Allah has made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve
in number. Four of them are holy, three of these are successive
and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Shaban.
“Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has
lost all hope of that he will be able to lead you astray in big
things, so beware of following him in small things.
“O People! it is true that you have certain rights with regard
to your women but they also have rights over you. Remember that
you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with
His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs
the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women
well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed
helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with
anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
“O People! listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your
five daily prayers, fast during month of Ramadan, and give your
wealth in Zakat (obligatory charity). Perform Hajj if you can afford
“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority
over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab;
also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority
over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim
is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one
brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs
to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly.
“Do not therefore do injustice to yourselves. Remember one
day you will meet Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not
astray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
“O People! No Prophet or Apostle Will Come after Me and No
New Faith Will Be Born. Reason well, therefore, O People! and understand
words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QUR’AN
and my SUNNAH (i.e., sayings, deeds, and approvals) and if you follow
these you will never go astray.
“All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others
and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words
better than those who listen to me directly.
“Be my witness O Allah, that I have conveyed your message
to your people."
As part of this sermon, the Prophet recited them a Revelation from
Allah which he had just received and which completed the Qur’an,
for it was the last passage to be revealed:
This day the disbelievers despair of prevailing against your religion,
so fear them not, but fear Me (Allah)! This day have I perfected
for you your religion and fulfilled My favor unto you, and it hath
been My good pleasure to choose Islam for you as your religion (Surah
5, Ayah 3).
The sermon was repeated sentence by sentence by Safwan's brother
Rabiah (RA), who had a powerful voice, at the request of the Prophet
and he faithfully proclaimed to over ten thousand gathered on the
occasion. Toward the end of his sermon, the Prophet asked “O
people, have I faithfully delivered unto you my message?" A
powerful murmur of assent “O Allah, yes!", arose from
thousands of pilgrims and the vibrant words “Allahumma na’m”
rolled like thunder throughout the valley. The Prophet raised his
forefinger and said: “Be my witness O Allah, that I have conveyed
your message to your people."
Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only
God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the
Arab Christians and Jews for the God (Eloh-im in Hebrew; 'Allaha'
in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus). The word Allah does not
have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associate or partner,
and He does not beget nor was He begotten. SWT is an abbreviation
of Arabic words that mean 'Glory Be To Him.'
s or pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him. This expression
is used for all Prophets of Allah.