Praise be to Allaah.
Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the
meaning): “Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven big stars, and
has placed therein a great lamp (sun), and a moon giving light”
And He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And indeed, We have put the big stars in the heaven and
We beautified it for the beholders”
“By the heaven holding the big stars”
The words “Blessed be He” mean: May He be exalted,
Whose giving is plentiful and Whose blessings are abundant.
So the Lord, may He be exalted, deserves gratitude,
veneration and praise for His blessings.
See: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 6/92; al-Jaami‘ li Ahkaam
al-Qur’aan, 7/223 and 13/1; Fath al-Qadeer, 3/683
“…Who has placed in the heaven big stars, and has placed
therein a great lamp (sun), and a moon giving light”
“big stars”: Ibn ‘Abbaas, Mujaahid, al-Dahhaak, al-Hasan,
Qataadah and al-Saddi stated that “burooj” [translated here as “big
stars”] refers to stars.
Tafseer Ibn Katheer (8/363)
Shaykh al-Sa‘di (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Allah says, describing His perfect power and His Mercy
towards His creation:
“And indeed, We have put the big stars in the heaven”
i.e., stars like towers, and great signs by which man may navigate in the
darkness on land and sea, “and We beautified it for the
beholders”[al-Hijr 15:16], for were it not for the stars, this wondrous
sight in the heavens would not exist. This is something that calls those who
gaze upon it to ponder it, seek its meaning and see it as evidence of its
Creator. End quote.
Tafseer al-Sa‘di, 1/430
And it was said that burooj refers to the
constellations. Al-Shawkaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
What is meant by burooj is the groups of stars, i.e.,
their constellations. And it was said that it refers to big stars, but the
former is more correct. They are called burooj, which refers to lofty
palaces, because they are like high built dwellings. The word burj is
derived from tabarruj, which refers to an open display. End quote.
Fath al-Qadeer, 4/122
The word “a lamp” refers to the sun, and “a moon
giving light” means it shines.
Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
“and has placed therein a great lamp” refers to the
“and a moon giving light” means it shines with the
light of another.
To sum up, what the verse means is: Exalted and venerated be
Allah, Whose giving is plentiful, for His blessings upon His creation are
evident. He is the One Who, by His grace, has adorned the lowest heaven with
these great stars and planets, and the sun and the moon which give light by
night and day. He has created that as part of His perfect blessings to His
creation; His blessings are vast and His generosity and kindness are
immense. So let them ponder the great signs that are above them, and the
blessings that they enjoy, so that they might believe in their Lord and give
thanks to Him.
And Allaah knows best.