Monday, 3 October 2011

A glimpse at the ‘Ubaydi (Fatimid) state – its origins and beliefs


What is your opinion about who calls for restoration of the Faatimi caliphate and the state of “Obeidis” saying: “The Faatimi state is the Islamic state that has the right solution at the current time as it had it in the past”?.

Praise be to Allaah.

This person is making a grave error when he describes the
‘Ubaydi state as being an Islamic state. 

The ‘Ubaydi state – which is what they call the Fatimid state
by way of deception– was founded in Tunis in 297 AH, and moved to Egypt in
362 AH, where it was firmly established, and its power spread to a large
part of the Muslim world, such as Syria and the Arabian Peninsula. 

Its rule began with al-Mu’izz li Deen-Allaah Mu’aadh ibn
al-Mansoor al-‘Ubaydi and ended with al-‘Aadid ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Yoosuf in 567

The Sunni imams, scholars and historians spoke of the
founding of this state and explained that their claims to be descended from
Faatimah (may Allaah be pleased with her) were false, and they described how
it spread kufr and heresy, persecuted Ahl al-Sunnah, and supported the
kuffaar and even cooperated with them against the Muslims. Among these imams
and historians were: Abu Shaamah, Ibn Taghri Bardi, Ibn Taymiyah, Ibn
Katheer, al-Dhahabi and many others. 

Imam al-Dhahabi said of ‘Ubayd-Allaah al-Mahdi, who was the
first ruler of that state: 

There are several opinions concerning the lineage of
al-Mahdi, which may be summed up by noting that he was neither Haashimi nor
Faatimi [i.e., he was not descended from Banu Haashim or from Faatimah]. End

Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’

And he said: 

The genealogists and scholars denied his claims concerning
his lineage. End quote. 

Tareekh al-Islam, events of
321-330 AH, p. 23 

It was narrated that Abu Shaamah – who wrote a book about
this state entitled Kashf ma kaana ‘alayhi Banu ‘Ubayd min al-Kufr
wa’l-Kadhb wa’l-Makr wa’l-Kayd – said: 

They claimed to be descendents of the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him), although they are descended from a Magian
or Jew, until they became known as such, and their state was called
al-dawlah al-‘alawiyyah (‘Alawi state – i.e., descendents of ‘Ali) or
al-dawlah al-faatimiyyah (Fatimid state). But in fact it is the esoteric,
heretic “Jewish state” or “Magian state”. End quote.  

See: Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’ (15/213) and
al-Rawdatayn fi Akhbaar al-Dawlatayn ((1/216). 

Among the actions and beliefs of the rulers of that state:
they claimed to have knowledge of the unseen, and they made claims of
Prophethood and divinity, and they demanded that their subjects and
followers prostrate to them, and they reviled the Sahaabah. There follows
proof of the above and more: 

1 –Claims of Prophethood and divinity: 

al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) narrated that the
fuqaha’ and devoted worshippers supported the Khawaarij in their war against
the ‘Ubaydis because of the kufr and heresy of the latter. When Abu Yazeed
Makhlad ibn Keedaad al-Khaariji wanted to fight Banu ‘Ubayd, al-Dhahabi (may
Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

The fuqaha’ and devoted worshippers hastened to make full
preparations with drums and banners. Ahmad ibn Abi’l-Waleed addressed them
on Friday at Jumu’ah prayers, and he exhorted them and said: Strive against
the one who disbelieves in Allaah and claims that he is a lord instead of
Allaah. … And he said: O Allaah, this kaafir Qarmati who is known as Ibn
‘Ubayd-Allaah and claims to be divine is denying Your blessings, and He
disbelieves in Your Lordship, slanders Your Messengers, disbelieves in
Muhammad Your Prophet, and sheds blood. Curse him greatly and humiliate him
deeply and send Your curse upon him morning and evening. Then he came down
and led them in Jumu’ah prayer. 

Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’

Among those who claimed divinity was the ‘Ubaydi ruler of
whom al-Dhahabi said: The heretic Ismaili who claims to be divine. 

Al-Siyar (15/173). 

He also said concerning him: 

It was said that he wanted to claim to be divine and he
started to do so, but the prominent figures of his state spoke to him and
warned that all the people would rebel against him. End quote. 

Al-Siyar (15/176). 

Among those who incited the ruler to make these claims was
Hamzah ibn ‘Ali al-Zawzani who was one of those who claimed that the ruler
was divine, and who founded the Druze sect in Syria. 

Al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) also said: 

The heretic Durzi was killed because of his claims that the
ruler was divine, and some of the ignorant used to say when they saw the
ruler: “O One, O One, O giver of life, O giver of death.” 

Al-Siyar (15/180, 181). 

Al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

I read in a one-volume book of history which describes what
happened each year and was written by some good people around the year 630
and was given to the ruler of Egypt, al-Malik al-Saalih, in 667: 

This action (i.e., putting an end to the ‘Ubaydi state) was
one of the noblest of the deeds of Salaah al-Deen al-Ayyoobi. What a good
thing he did, for these people were baatinis and heretics who called for
belief in transmigration of souls and the belief that the divine was
physically incarnated in them.  

Al-Dhahabi said: al-Haakim said to his propagandist: How many
do you have listed (as followers)? He said: Sixteen thousand who believe
that you are god. 

Their poet said: 

“Rule, for you are the one, the compeller; it is what you
wish and not what the divine decree wills” 

May Allaah curse both the praiser and the praised, for this
is no less abhorrent than when Pharaoh said, “I am your lord, most high”
[al-Naaz’iaat 79:24].

One of their poets said concerning al-Mahdi in Raqqaadah: 

“Adam and Nooh are there, and anything other than Allaah is

The Messiah is there in Raqqaadah, Allaah in His glory is

He said:  

This man is worse in his kufr than the Christians, because
the Christians believe that the divine was incarnated physically in ‘Eesa
only, but these people believe that He was incarnated in the bodies of Adam,
Nooh, the Prophets and all the imams. 

This is their creed, may Allaah curse them. 

Tareekh al-Islam, events of
561-570 AH, p. 274-281. 

When ‘Ubayd-Allaah claimed to be a prophet, he brought two of
the faqeehs of Qayrawaan to appear before him as he was sitting on his
throne, and he ordered one of his servants to say to the two Shaykhs: “Do
you bear witness that this man is the messenger of Allaah?” They said: “By
Allaah, if he came to us with the sun on his right and the moon on his left,
both of them saying that he was a messenger of Allaah, we would not believe
that.” So he ordered that they be slaughtered. 

Al-Siyar (14/217). 

2 – Claim to have knowledge of the unseen 

Ibn Khallikaan (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

They claimed to have knowledge of the unseen, and there are
well known reports concerning that.  

Wafiyaat al-A’yaan (5/373, 374) 

3 – People prostrated for them 

They ordered the people to prostrate for them. al-Dhahabi
(may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

In 396 AH, khutbahs were given in the two holy sanctuaries
under the authority of the ruler of Egypt al-Haakim, and the people were
ordered to stand up and prostrate when he was mentioned. Inna Lillaahi wa
inna ilayhi raaji’oon (Verily to Allaah we belong and unto Him is our

Duwal al-Islam (1/350). 

When al-Haakim was mentioned they would stand up and
prostrate for him. Al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

They stood up and prostrated in the market place, and in
their meeting places. Inna Lillaahi wa inna ilayhi raaji’oon (Verily
to Allaah we belong and unto Him is our return). These ‘Ubaydis were an evil
that befell Islam and the Muslims. 

Al-Tareekh, events of 381-400
AH, p. 234. 

4 – They killed the scholars who did not follow their

Abu’l-Hasan al-Qaabisi, the author of al-Mulakhkhas,
said: The number of those killed by ‘Ubayd-Allaah and his descendents in his
torture chamber was four thousand scholars and worshippers, to stop them
saying “Radiya Allaah ‘anhum (may Allaah be pleased with them)” about
the Sahaabah.              

Al-Siyar (15/145). 

5 – The Qaraamitah participated in their crimes 

al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

During the reign of al-Mahdi the Qaraamitah committed crimes
in Bahrain. They attacked the pilgrims, killing and taking prisoners, and
they violated the sanctuary of Allaah in Makkah and took away the Black
Stone. ‘Ubayd-Allaah corresponded with them and incited them, may Allaah
destroy him. 

Al-Siyar (15/147). 

6 – Reviling the Sahaabah 

During the reign of al-‘Azeez, the Sahaabah were reviled

Al-Siyar (15/170). 

He ordered that words reviling the Sahaabah be written on the
doors of the mosques and in the streets, and he ordered his state workers to
revile them in 395 AH. 

Tareekh al-Islam, events of 395
AH, p. 283. 

And he said:  

Reviling of the Sahaabah was widespread during his reign
(i.e., al-Mustansir) and the Sunnah was unknown and hidden. 

Al-Siyar (15/196). 

In brief, they were baatinis who changed the religion of
Islam; they were outwardly Raafidis but inwardly they were heretics. 

Al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

They changed the religion of Islam. They were outwardly
Raafidis, but inwardly they were Ismailis. 

Al-Siyar (15/141). 

Al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

As for the baatini ‘Ubaydis, they are enemies of Allaah and
His Messenger. 

Al-Siyar (15/373). 

He also (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

 How these ‘Ubaydis tampered with and changed the religion of
Islam is indescribable. 

Al-Siyar (16/149). 

Al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

Abu Yoosuf al-Ra’eeni said: The scholars in Qayrawaan are
unanimously agreed that Banu ‘Ubayd are apostates and heretics. 

Tarteeb al-Madaarik (4/720); see
also al-Siyar (15/151). 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him)
said in al-Radd ‘ala al-Bakri: 

The ‘Ubaydis, who are inwardly heretics, follow the beliefs
of the philosophers and Magians and have mixed them with Raafidi views. The
best they show of commitment to Islam is the Raafidi way, but inwardly they
are heretics, worse than the Jews and Christians. 

Hence the scholars said concerning them that they are
outwardly Raafidis, but inwardly their belief is pure kufr. They are among
the people who venerate shrines the most, and believe in astrology, and
other religious practices of the mushrikeen. They are the least likely of
people to venerate the mosques which Allaah has ordered to be raised (to be
cleaned, and to be honoured), in them His Name is remembered (cf. al-Noor
24:36).Their legacy in Cairo proves that. End quote.  

And he said (may Allaah have mercy on him) in al-Radd ‘ala

The ‘Ubaydis were outwardly Muslim and said that they were
Shi’ah, so they appeared to be Raafidis but inwardly they were heretics as
Abu Haamid al-Ghazaali said in al-Mustazhari: Outwardly they are
Raafidis but inwardly their belief is pure kufr. What Abu Haamid said about
them is that on which there is consensus among Muslim scholars. End quote. 

He said (may Allaah have mercy on him) in Minhaaj

They (the rulers of the ‘Ubaydi state) are well known for
their heresy, opposition to Allaah and His Messenger, apostasy and
hypocrisy. End quote. 

Ibn Katheer said in al-Bidaayah wa’l-Nihaayah

When the khateeb mentioned al-Haakim the people would all
stand up out of respect. They also did that in Egypt, and in addition to
that they would prostrate for him. They would prostrate when he was
mentioned. So those who were praying would prostrate and those who were in
the marketplace would prostrate when they prostrated. May Allaah curse him.
End quote. 

Such was the ‘Ubaydi state, and these are some of their evil
deeds. Thus it is clear that the one who says that the ‘Ubaydi state was an
Islamic state and ignores the blessed states and times in which Islam ruled,
and focuses instead on the ‘Ubaydi state as the solution for our own times,
is wrong. This is a bad and abhorrent statement. 

The one who says that wants to repeat the spread of heresy
and kufr, the reviling of the Sahaabah and the killing of the scholars! 

There is no solution for the Muslims except to return to the
teachings of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
and his noble Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them). 

We ask Allaah to bring the Muslims back soundly to their

See the study entitled Mawqif al-Imam al-Dhahabi min
al-Dawlah al-‘Ubaydiyyah nasaban wa mu’taqadan by Dr. Sa’d ibn Moosa
al-Moosa, assistant professor at the Faculty of Sharee’ah in Umm al-Qura
University, which was published in Majallat Jaami’at Umm al-Qura,
issue no. 24, Rabee’ al-Awwal 1423 AH/May 2002 CE. 

And Allaah is the Source of strength.

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